Friday, 10/22/21 – Why do Christians speak of “hope” – Aren’t they sure?

Why do Christians speak of “hope” – Aren’t they sure?

We most often think of “hope” as a verb: We desire something to happen or to be true, e.g. “I hope it doesn’t rain.” But “hope” is also a noun. One definition of “hope” in its noun usage is “A person or thing upon which one’s hopes are centered,” as in the statement “He is our only hope for victory!”

This is the sort of “hope” in which Christians trust. It is the noun sort of “hope” and in it they are confident. Though we long for that day when that hope will be realized, we do not “hope” for it in the sense of a toss of the dice or a spin of the wheel. The Christian’s hope is not a gamble, but a certainty based upon faith,“…the substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things not seen” (Heb. 11:1, KJV).

Now faith is confidence in what we hope for and assurance about what we do not see.” (Heb. 11:1, NIV).

The Christian’s hope is based upon the confident assurance that, as the Father revealed to Peter, “You [Jesus] are the Messiah, the Son of the living God.” (Matt. 16:16-18). Through Him, our personal relationship and trust in Him, and the indwelling Spirit of Christ, the Christian knows that this life is not all there is — that ‘in Christ’ he has “a hope and a future” (Jer. 29:11). He knows that sin will ultimately be destroyed… that eternal life and righteousness are his… and that his soul is forever secure.

In this light, consider the following scriptures:

Act 23:6 “But when Paul… cried out in the council, …of the hope and resurrection of the dead I am called in question.” / Act 26:6 “…and am judged for the hope of the promise made of God unto our fathers” / Act 28:20 “…for the hope of Israel I am bound with this chain.” • Rom 4:18 “Who against hope believed in hope,” / Rom 5:2 “[we]…rejoice in hope of the glory of God.” / Rom 8:24,25 “For we are saved by hope: but hope that is seen is not hope: for what a man seeth, why doth he yet hope for? But if we hope for that we see not, then do we with patience wait for it.” • Gal 5:5 “For we through the Spirit wait for the hope of righteousness by faith.” / Eph 4:4 “…ye are called in one hope of your calling” • Col 1:5 “…the hope which is laid up for you in heaven…” / Col 1:23 “…be not moved away from the hope of the gospel…” / Col 1:27 “…this mystery among the Gentiles; which is Christ in you, the hope of glory” • 1 Th 4:13 “…sorrow not, even as others which have no hope/1 Th 5:8 “…putting on… for an helmet, the hope of salvation.” / 1 Ti 1:1 “…and Lord Jesus Christ, which is our hope” • Tit 2:13 “Looking for that blessed hope…”  /  Heb 6:19 “Which hope we have as an anchor of the soul…” • 1 Pe 1:3 “…our Lord Jesus Christ… hath begotten us again unto a lively hope” / 1Pe 3:15 “…be ready always to give an answer to every man that asketh you a reason of the hope that is in you…”

And finally, 1 Jn 3:3 “…every man that hath this hope in him purifieth himself, even as he is pure.

Press on…

Got a question? Use the Contact page and send It to me. We’ll search the Word for God’s answer.

Want to know how to find this “hope” in Christ? – Use the same page.

Friday, 10/15/21 – Why can’t I stand the one I love most?

Why can’t I stand the one I love most?

It’s a strange dilemma the way God has constructed us human animals. We sense our incompleteness and are drawn to someone who compliments our deficiencies. Together we find balance. But the trick is that balance is found at the fulcrum of our differences… in the middle of our opposites.

Imagine two children of equal weight trying to balance horizontally on a teeter-totter. To accomplish this each must move equal distance toward the centre and in relationships the same principle holds. Each must depart to some extent from their extreme and move closer toward the centre point. It involves both sacrifice and closeness. And it remains always a balancing act.

I found this rather interesting chart somewhere online. It shows very clearly how extremes can be the enemies of each other, yet, how when met in the middle there is wholeness and health.

I believe that this balancing act, this need to “work it out,” is exactly what our Lord had in mind all along.

Scripture tells us that in eternity “people will neither marry nor be given in marriage; they will be like the angels in heaven.” (Matt. 22:30). Paul taught the Galatians that in Christ “There is neither Jew nor Gentile, neither slave nor free, nor is there male and female.” (Gal. 3:28). And John wrote “now we are children of God, and what we will be has not yet been made known.” (1 John 3:2). All of these passages point to the fact that we are a work in progress. The end result, as John summarizes, is “we shall be like Him.” We shall be like Christ.

Brothers and sisters let us not make our time on this earth a ‘tug-of-war’ or a competition, but let us make it a cooperation… a teamwork… a unity… the body and bride of Christ. Let us pull together, toward the center, becoming that one new creation made in the Image of Christ.

Press on…

Got a question? Use the Contact page and send It to me. We’ll search the Word for God’s answer.

Friday, 10/8/21 – Today’s Question: Imagination or Faith?

Imagination or Faith?

Fifty years ago on this date (Oct. 8, 1971) John Lennon released his hit single “Imagine.” In it, Lennon alluringly invites listeners to “imagine” with him a world of bliss and harmony… a world made possible if only everyone would “join us,” the “imaginers”, the “dreamers.” Then, suggests Lennon, “the world will be as one.” In short, this future is made possible simply by sustained and unified human will.

Lennon’s imagined paradise includes a world where there is “No heaven… no hell… and no religion too.” He dodges the realities of mortality, purpose, and eternity: “Imagine all the people / Living for today.

Source: “Cover Me Songs”

Mind you, I do love the tune. I love its simplicity and, like most of humanity, I share in the longing desire of the artist for a world devoid of turmoil, hatred, and war. But I disagree profoundly with Lennon’s notion that such a world might be man-made and godless. I am conflicted when I listen to it, like strolling through a beautifully sunlit and fragrant meadow — peppered with landmines!

But Lennon’s longing is not new. Humanity has always sought to set up its own righteousness and shun the nagging notion of a God to Whom one must one day give an account. From Him we seek to run, and in running we hope to find freedom. We are like a kite, wanting to cut its string in order to reach the moon, unaware that doing so brings not its freedom but its doom.

“I want to break free,” shouts Queen in another song, “…I’ve got to break free / God knows, God knows I want to break free.” Yes, God does know, and for that reason He seeks to win us back by His Love. “What love?” you may ask as you look about at this evil and unjust world. John 3:16 Love. Agapé Love. The Love of God that gave His only Son to save your soul.

“We must not confuse God with life,” warns Yancey. Jesus makes no promises of goodness in this life. Indeed He promises the opposite: “In this world you will have trouble.” He warns, then adds: “But take heart! I have overcome the world.”

We do not have to “imagine” a fantasy world, we need only to face we have failed, return to our Redeemer, and die to self daily. To those who do He promises, “I go and prepare a place for you, I will come back and take you to be with me that you also may be where I am.” (John 14:3).

Press on…

Link here to John Lennon, “Imagine

Imagine there’s no heaven / It’s easy if you try // No hell below us / Above us only sky // Imagine all the people / Living for today // Imagine there’s no countries / It isn’t hard to do // Nothing to kill or die for / And no religion too // Imagine all the people / Living life in peace // You may say I’m a dreamer / But I’m not the only one // I hope someday you’ll join us / And the world will be as one // Imagine no possessions / I wonder if you can // No need for greed or hunger / A brotherhood of man // Imagine all the people / Sharing all the world // You may say I’m a dreamer / But I’m not the only one // I hope someday you’ll join us / And the world will live as one  – Source: Musixmatch

Got a question? Use the Contact page and send It to me. We’ll search the Word for God’s answer.

Friday, 10/1/21 – After Unity, Then What?

After Unity, Then What?

If you’ve been following my posts thru this week you will have noticed an emphasis on unity, acceptance of those with differing determinations of conscience on disputable matters, and of reconciliation as an essential soil for unified fellowship. Our World needs unity, our Nation needs unity, our communities need unity and God has called His Church to unity that we might be the sowers of unity to all.

“That we might be the sowers of unity to all” — Catch this vision with me. It is the vision of our Lord… Hear Him praying for you… for you… His Church,

I pray for them. I am not praying for the world, but for those you have given me, for they are yours… they are still in the world, and I am coming to you. Holy Father, protect them by the power of your name… so that they may be one as we are one. …My prayer is not that you take them out of the world but that you protect them from the evil one. …As you sent me into the world, I have sent them into the world….”

“My prayer is not for them alone. I pray also for those who will believe in me through their message, that all of them may be one, Father, just as you are in me and I am in you. May they also be in us so that the world may believe that you have sent me. I have given them the glory that you gave me, that they may be one as we are one—I in them and you in me—so that they may be brought to complete unity. Then the world will know that you sent me and have loved them even as you have loved me.” (John 17:9-23, selected portions).

Jesus wants us from our unity to go out into this world and touch it for Christ.

In pandemics past this is exactly What the Church of Christ has done. Instead of looking inward, unified congregants sought to bring aid to the suffering. What a great opportunity this is to share the eternal hope that we have in Christ. Suffering and death need not alarm us. Though we take wise precaution to guard against illness, to eat and sleep and exercise, “we know that if the earthly tent we live in is destroyed, we have a building from God, an eternal house in heaven, not built by human hands.” (2 Cor. 5:1). There, there will be plenty of forever to go around… plenty of forever to sing and to worship then. Now, here, we have but a short time to reach outward. Then, there, we will have no such opportunity.

Lord, bring Your great Church to unity that we may glorify Your Name!

Press on…

Got a question? Use the Contact page and send It to me. We’ll search the Word for God’s answer.

Friday, 9/24/21 – Friday Question: “What is the Christian response in this present pandemic?”

What is the Christian response in this present pandemic?

To find clarity in responding to this question I believe it helpful first to remove any aspect of what a government may request or require and respond first to the question “What is the appropriate Christian response when it finds itself in the midst of a devastating pandemic?” What option is most Christ-like?

  1. The church makes no accommodations and continues to gather unprotected.
  2. The church closes in order to remove all possibility of infection by meeting together.
  3. The church takes appropriate precautions to make meeting together safe.

There is a fine line between faith and presumption. There is a great difference between trusting God and tempting God, between acting in wisdom and acting in folly. God protected Paul when by chance he was bitten by a viper (Acts 28:1-6) and He turned this incident into an outcome to His Glory. But He does not extend such protection to those who willfully expose themselves.

It is my conviction that the 3rd option is the appropriate Christian response. It assumes nothing by presumption, does not tempt God, and is in no way acting in folly. Now, if a government asks or imposes upon a church to select this same option does that fact now make this option less appropriate, less Christian?

The death toll of the 1918 influenza pandemic fell somewhere between 50 to 100 million souls. Many churches closed to preserve their societies. The Black Plague of the mid 1300s is said to have slain 1/3 of the then world’s population. Thinking the plague God’s punishment for sin Christians held huge processionals of up to 2,000 people which lasted as long as 3 days. Such gatherings only worsened the spread taking many more lives.

Brothers and sisters we must consider the glory of God. Do we wish to show this world the love of God or the stubbornness of man?  “What would Jesus do?” is always a most informing question. He the great Healer who endangered no one, Who rendered to Caesar, Who submitted to Pilate, He in Whom neither accusers nor state could find fault except falsely – what would He do? Paul wrote that without love one’s actions were useless. “Love,” he said, “always protects… always perseveres” (1 Cor. 13:7).

We are not being asked to bow to an idol, to cease our praying, or to deny our Lord. We are being asked to act in love and in wisdom, to continue in our worship of our God in such a way that may result in the health and safety of many — alive in body that by our prayers and safe ministry we might also by Christ make them alive in spirit!

Much more could be said, and some will disagree, but let us agree to seek the Face of our God, subdue the rages of our flesh, and love one another deeply.

Press on…

Here’s some links that may interest you…

Pandemics and Public Worship throughout History

How the Church Responded to Previous Pandemics

Pandemics and the Church – What does History Teach us?

Got a question? Use the Contact page and send It to me. We’ll search the Word for God’s answer.

Friday, 9/17/21 – Who Were the Sons of Korah?

Who Were the Sons of Korah?

Perhaps while reading the Psalms you’ve noticed the attribution “A Psalm of the Sons of Korah” or “A maskil* of the sons of Korah.” You may have wondered, just who were these mysterious “sons of Korah?”

But before I get to that, let’s clear up a common misconception…

Perhaps, like me, you assumed David wrote the majority of the psalms. Maybe, also like me, you pictured him serenely laying on a hillside, watching over Jesse’s sheep, the duties of shepherding done for the day as the sun gently began to set on the horizon. He picks up his harp and begins to compose…

Well, not so! In fact of the 150 psalms David is attributed with writing only, and exactly, half! 75! 73 psalms bear his name: 3-9; 11-32; 34-41; 51-65; 68-70; 86; 101; 103; 108-110; 122; 124; 131; 133; and 138-145. Psalm 2 is referred to as by David in Acts 4:25 and psalm 95 is given Davidic authorship in Heb.4:7. These psalms were written throughout the highs and lows of David’s life: while fleeing his enemies, after committing great sin, while contemplating life, or reveling in God’s majesty!

Asaph (one of the leaders of David’s choir, wrote 12 psalms: 50; 73-83. Heman, a grandson of Samuel, along with the sons of Korah, wrote 1 psalm: 88; Solomon, David’s son wrote 2 psalms: 72 and 127; Moses scribed 1 psalm: 90; Ethan the Ezrahite also penned 1 psalm: 89; and 48 psalms remain anonymous.

Eleven psalms are attributed to “The Sons of Korah”: 42, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 84, 85, 87, and 88.

So who were they? Turns out there are three “Korahs” mentioned in the Bible. The first we find in Genesis 36:4,14. This “Korah” is one of the sons born to Oholibamah, one of Esau’s wives. In vs. 18 he is included as one of the “chiefs” among Esau’s descendants. The second is named in 1 Chronicles 2:34, identified simply as a son of someone named Hebron. Neither of these feature as prominently in the Bible as the third “Korah.” His story is found in the book of Numbers, chapter 16.

This Korah was a descendant of Levi, the tribe specifically set apart for the service of the sanctuary. He, along with two Reubenites, Dathan and Abiram, On, son of Peleth plus 250 Israeli community heavyweights decided to challenge the God-appointed leadership of Moses! (Num. 16:1-3). Their rebellion was really a rebellion against God!

For their transgression these men met a truely awesome and terrible fate:

“…the ground under them split apart and the earth opened its mouth and swallowed them and their households, and all those associated with Korah, together with their possessions… the earth closed over them, and they perished… And fire came out from the Lord and consumed the 250 men …” (Num. 16:31-35).

The actions of this Korah were so well-known and evil that Jude names him in likening the wicked of his day,

Woe to them! They have taken the way of Cain [the first murderer]; they have rushed for profit into Balaam’s error [being swayed from obedience by the prospect of personal gain]; they have been destroyed in Korah’s rebellion [challenging God by challenging His appointed representative].” (Jude 11).

But thankfully this evil heart did not continue throughout subsequent generations. Later offspring of Korah served as doorkeepers and soldiers under King David; three in particular, Heman, Asaph, and Ethan, excelled in music and contributed to the writing of the psalms.

Press on…

 * A “maskil” is a type of musical performance

Got a question? Use the Contact page and send It to me. We’ll search the Word for God’s answer.

Friday, 9/10/21 – Does Judaism still practice Animal Sacrifice?

Does Judaism still practice Animal Sacrifice?

A blog reader, Barb, asks, “Why do Jews of today not preform the old animal sacrifices? If they don’t believe Jesus was the Messiah, and that He came to abolish the old law, why did unbelieving Jews stop using the old laws…or did they?”

Thanks Barb… and no, Jews today do not practice animal sacrifice. Here’s the backstory…

In 66 AD the Judean Jews rebelled against the Romans who ruled over them. This resulted in Nero ordering General Vespasian to restore order. By 68 AD order was re-established and the Romans focus shifted to Jerusalem. Nero died and Vespasian became Emperor while his son Titus pressed on in the attack on Jerusalem. By 70 AD the outer walls were breached and a full attack commenced. The climax of this siege was the burning and destruction of the Temple.

Now according to Mosaic Law the Temple was the only proscribed place of animal sacrifice:

“Be careful not to sacrifice your burnt offerings anywhere you please. Offer them only at the place the Lord will choose in one of your tribes, and there observe everything I command you.” (Deut. 12:13-14).

So it was then that animal sacrifices stopped.

It is interesting to me that the God Who instituted the Mosaic Law and the requirement of blood sacrifice for sin, the God Who sent to us His One and Only Son Christ to be the fulfillment of that system by becoming the Lamb of God, the final sacrifice for our sin, that this God within this same generation also allowed the destruction of the Temple and thereby put an end to the old system of lesser sacrifices. Remember too that at the very moment of Christ’s death the heavy veil in the Temple was rent in two, symbolically making the way to the most holy open to all (see Matt. 27:51).

But despite all this the Jews have not yet embraced Christ as their Messiah. So, another question arises, “Upon what then does the Jew of today trust to receive the forgiveness of God?”

In the Law we read, “For the life of a creature is in the blood, and I have given it to you to make atonement for yourselves on the altar; it is the blood that makes atonement for one’s life.“ (Lev. 17:11). Or as Hebrews states it, “…without the shedding of blood there is no forgiveness.” (Heb. 9:22). The Christian trusts in the shed blood of Christ, as the promised Messiah, but the Jews do not. Since they do not trust in Christ for atonement, and can no longer offer animal sacrifices, where is their atonement for sin?

Today’s Jew rests his faith upon passages such as this: “For I desire mercy, not sacrifice, and acknowledgment of God rather than burnt offerings.” (Hoses 6:6) Despite the clarity of passages like Lev. 17:11 cited above today’s Jew relies upon prayer, repentance and works (good deeds).

Scripture tells us the day will come when all Israel will return to Christ (Rom. 11:25-27; Isa. 59:20, 21; Jer. 31:33,34), but as yet that day has not happened. As believers in our Lord Jesus Christ we ought pray that this day will hasten.

Press on…

Got a question? Use the Contact page and send It to me. We’ll search the Word for God’s answer.

Friday, 9/3/21 – “If God is beyond understanding, why try?”

“If God is beyond understanding, why try?”

Today’s question comes neither from a reader, the internet, nor my own musings. This question is a paraphrase of one asked rhetorically by Cyril of Jerusalem (310-386). Cyril was a church leader and expounder of orthodoxy. His Catechetical Lectures are an insightful and articulate commentary on Christian doctrine.

Cyril asks, “If the divine essence is beyond our understanding, why do you even bother to talk about these things?” He responds with three indisputable analogies:

“Because I can’t drink up the whole river, can’t I take what brings me blessing? Just because, with eyes made like mine, my sight can’t suck up the whole sun, can’t I even look on it enough to meet my needs? Just because I’ve gone into a bountiful garden and can’t gorge myself on its whole volume of fruits, do you want me to go away utterly hungry?”

Or we might pose this question yet another way: “Because our God is infinite in greatness and glory and therefore worthy of infinite praise, why should we attempt to praise Him at all?”

There is an obvious ludicrosity in such a statement! In the last of the psalms the psalmist writes, “Let everything that has breath praise the Lord.” (Ps. 150:6). The psalm opens and closes with the words “Praise the Lord,” in the Hebrew the phrase is equally familiar, “Hallelu Yah” —  Hallelujah!

Do you cheer your home team win, or do you keep silent because enough other fans are cheering? Do you stop buying groceries because you cannot eat the whole stock of the supermarket? Do you decide not to breathe because your lungs are too small to inhale the whole of the planet’s supply?

Paul scribes in doxology,

“Oh, the depth of the riches of the wisdom and knowledge of God! How unsearchable His judgments, and His paths beyond tracing out! Who has known the mind of the Lord? Or who has been His counselor? Who has ever given to God, that God should repay them? For from Him and through Him and for Him are all things…” (Rom. 11:33-36a).

And what does Paul conclude after stating such divine vastness? “To Him be the glory forever! Amen.” (Rom. 11:36b). In giving God praise and in seeking out the depths of His being we, as well as He, are edified.

If God is beyond understanding, why try? Because we were created and commanded to do it. Because He is our Bread and Living Water; taking Him into our being again and again is our life! Taking Him in in mind and soul… taking Him in and spilling Him out… streams of living water! It is our privilege, our duty, our chief joy!

Press on…

Got a question? Use the Contact page and send It to me. We’ll search the Word for God’s answer.

Friday, 8/27/21 – If death is natural why does it feel so wrong?

If death is natural why does it feel so wrong?

Here is a modified something that I posted back in 2017, before I began blogging.

One of the most convincing evidences of the truth of the gospel is the fact that we all feel that death is something that ought not happen. Every other aspect of our natural being makes sense: we hunger, there is natural food and we are nourished by it; we have a drive for sex, there is a mate to fulfil that and it results in multiplication of humankind; we fear a danger, and adrenalin provides energy for battle or escape; we have creative ambition and can create. But then comes death. It makes no sense. We want to go on… but the fact of death thwarts us.

God has created us with a sense of eternity in our hearts. Death feels wrong because it is wrong. The fact that all around us and within us death exists is not God’s fault, it is ours – ours because of sin. Long ago we chose, and every day we choose, sin over God. Death is not what God our Creator intended. “He has made everything beautiful in its time. Also He has put eternity in their hearts….” (Ecclesiastes 3:11).

Tozer comments…

“We take it for granted and we are not surprised at all about the eternal nature of God but the greater wonder is that God has seen fit to put His own everlastingness within the hearts of men and women….
I believe that this is the truth about our troubles and our problems: We are disturbed because God has put everlastingness in our hearts. He has put a longing for immortality in our beings. He has put something within men and women that demands God and heaven—and yet we are too blind and sinful to find Him or even to look for Him!…
Men and women need to be told plainly, and again and again, why they are disturbed and why they are upset. They need to be told why they are lost and that if they will not repent they will certainly perish. Doctors and counselors will tell troubled men and women that their problems are psychological, but it is something deeper within the human being that troubles and upsets—it is the longing after eternity.” – A.W. Tozer, Christ the Eternal Son, pp. 52-54

The wages of sin is death,” (Rom. 6 :23a) But the gospel tells us there is a way back to eternality. There is an answer to that inner longing, and that answer is Christ! “…the wages of sin is death, but the gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord.” (Rom. 6:23b).

May the Lord, help all who read this see past the commotion and chaos of this world and listen to that longing within. May they all reach out and grasp Christ, our only hope of salvation and the gift of eternal life.

Press on…

Got a question? Use the Contact page and send It to me. We’ll search the Word for God’s answer.

Friday, 8/20/21 – Today’s Question: Why did Rachel want Leah’s Mandrakes?

Why did Rachel want Leah’s Mandrakes?

Today’s question arises from an incident recorded in the 30th chapter of the book of Genesis, the very first book of the Old Testament, the book of beginnings. From the creation of all things, the origin of sin, Noah, the flood, God’s covenant with Abraham, His dealings with Isaac, Jacob (whom God renamed ‘Israel’), his sons, and the beginnings of the 12 tribes of Israel.

Now Jacob, you may recall, loved Rachel and worked 7 years for her father, Laban, to win her hand in marriage. Laban, however, tricked Joseph into marrying Rachel’s elder sister Leah first and then working an additional 7 years in exchange for Rachel. You can well imagine the rivalry between these two sisters for the attention and favor of Jacob, and giving him sons was seen as one way to score points!

Leah turns out to be the most fertile and bears Jacob 4 sons (Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah). At this, Rachel becomes desperate. She gives Jacob her servant Bilhah to produce sons for her, and Bilhah does, giving Jacob 2 more sons (Dan, Naphtali). Two can play at this game, thinks Leah, so she too gives her servant Zilpah to Jacob and 2 more sons are born (Gad, Asher).

The score is Leah 4, Bilhah 2, Zilpah 2, Rachel 0, and it is at this point the Mandrakes come in (Gen. 30:14-16).

Reuben, Leah’s firstborn, discovers some Mandrakes plants and brings them home to Leah.

Mandrakes belong to the nightshade family. They have white or purple flowers and produce large yellow berries. Many cultures used them as an aphrodisiac and fertility drug. Mandrakes appear two times in the Bible, here, and in the intimate love poem of Song of Solomon.

“The mandrakes send out their fragrance, and at our door is every delicacy, both new and old, that I have stored up for you, my beloved.” (Song of Solomon 7:13).

This then is evidently Rachel’s interest in obtaining them. So far she’s given her husband no children at all. The Mandrakes just might boost her odds.

As it turns out though, Leah is the next to bear and in time gives Jacob 2 more sons (Issachar, Zebulun) – Oh, and a daughter (Dinah)!

At long last Rachel does bear Jacob a son (Joseph) and some time later, with her dying breath, another (Benjamin) (Gen. 35:16-18).

Press on…

Got a question? Use the Contact page and send It to me. We’ll search the Word for God’s answer.